Mattias Ottervik

Assistant Professor
Shandong University, Qingdao

www.ottervik.com

ottervik@sdu.edu.cn


My research agenda explores the relationship between gender, how societies are governed, and social and economic development. Fundamentally, I am interested in the question of why some regions see peace and development while others struggle with conflict and widespread poverty.


About Me


Assistant professor at the School of Political Science and Public Administration at Shandong University. I received my PhD in political science from the Chinese University of Hong Kong with the thesis "Gender and Progress: How Gender Equality Affects Long-Term Human Development". Before that I earned a master’s degree in political science from the University of Gothenburg, and a bachelor's degree in history from Yale University. Prior to my graduate studies I worked in Japan as a market researcher and then as a network administrator.

My research agenda explores the relationship between gender, how societies are governed, and social and economic development. It addresses the question of why some regions see peace and development while others struggle with conflict and widespread poverty. In my thesis research I found that even with extensive controls -- including historical levels of development, quality of government, and gender relations -- changes in substantive gender equality lead to long-term improvements in quality of government and development. The long-term effect on social and economic development of changes in gender equality are greater than the effect of quality of government.

I have presented my research on the longitudinal effect of changes in gender equality at APSA, ISA, and MPSA. I am an affiliate of the WomanStats Project, a global network of scholars studying the link between gender and governance.


Publications


Blunting the Later-Mover Advantage: Intellectual Property and Knowledge Transfer

Akron Law Review, forthcoming with Irina Manta

The United States followed a path of initially giving little protection to intellectual property (IP) such as to benefit from the IP of those we term earlier-movers on the world stage of economic development. This symposium piece argues that Japan and China have been following a similar trajectory in their intellectual property laws while progressing on their own economic climb. Expand abstract »

Widespread international outsourcing of manufacturing has made intellectual property a key asset for private companies strengthening tendencies of earlier-movers to formulate and enforce strict intellectual property laws. This suggests that countries like China respond not only to pressure from earlier-movers like the United States to increase intellectual property protection, but are also driven by concerns against their own later-movers. Perhaps curiously, if the hierarchy of movers shifts, the relative interest in intellectual property enforcement will as well, and China will seek to protect its goods against infringement by the likes of the United States and Japan someday.



Transforming Long-Term Care in Three Chinese Societies

Transforming Societies (edited by Ngoh Tiong Tan), 2017 with Shiyu Lu

This chapter compares long-term care of the elderly (LTCE) in three Chinese societies: the Guangdong province, Hong Kong and Taiwan. These societies are in the middle of a rapid transformation from overwhelmingly young to increasingly ageing societies, with a rising need for LTCE. Expand extract »

This is a drastic break from the recent past when schooling, not elderly care, absorbed the attention of policy makers. These societies are directly influenced by Confucian culture and history, and are comparable from a developmental perspective (e.g. scoring 0.894, 0.922, and 0.975 respectively on the Health dimension of the Human Development Index in 2011) (UNDP 2013), but have been under very distinctive political systems with very different administrative histories.
Routledge



Swedes and Civil Society (in Swedish)

Mittfåra och Marginal (edited by Henrik Oscarsson and Annika Bergström), 2014 with Edvin Boije

Civilsamhället är ett begrepp som på senare år kommit att användas allt mer flitigt i den svenska samhällsdebatten. Att begreppet som sådant ännu inte riktigt fått fäste i det svenska medvetandet beror emellertid inte på att det rör sig om någon ny företeelse. Däremot är begreppet civilsamhälle betydligt mindre etablerat i Sverige än i den engelskspråkiga världen där motsvarande, civil society, i stort sett är allmänt känt. Expand extract »

I Sverige talar vi istället ofta om folkrörelser och i såväl politiska dokument som i den egna självbilden har folkrörelser traditionellt sett benämnts närmast synonymt med civilsamhället och den ideella sektorn. I och med regeringens proposition "En Politik för det Civila Samhället" ersattes den officiella folkrörelsepolitiken 2009 med en officiell ”politik om det civila samhället” och i samma proposition konstaterar regeringen att ”den svenska demokratins historia till stora delar är det civila samhällets historia” (Prop. 2009/10:55). Demokratiska rättigheter som allmän och lika rösträtt, jämställdhet och offentlighetsprincipen hade sannolikt inte varit en självklarhet idag utan den kamp människor fört utifrån sitt ideella engagemang.
SOM Institute, Gothenburg University



Does Compliance Correlate with Political Support?

The Quality of Government Institute Working Paper Series, 2014 with Peter Essaiasson

The literature on state legitimacy posits a close relationship between attitudinal political support and compliant behavior. The relationship is well theorized, but an examination of the empirical evidence suggests a significant lacuna. Expand abstract »

In the literature that focuses citizens’ attitudinal political support, the relationship has been tested through the use of proxies for behavior. In the literature that focuses states’ actions to coax compliance out of citizens, the relationship is derived from behavior. To begin fill this gap in the research, the paper estimates country-level correlations between standard measures of attitudinal political support and a compliant behavior index generated by us. Using data from comparative survey studies (attitudinal support) and official records (compliant behav- ior), we find a strong and consistent correlation between the two key variables.
Quality of Government Institute, Gothenburg University



Conceptualizing and Measuring State Capacity: Testing the Measurement Validity of Tax Compliance as Measure of State Capacity

The Quality of Government Institute Working Paper Series, 2013

This paper proposes and quantitatively tests a measurement of state capacity using Robert Adcock and David Collier’s four-step framework. Expand abstract »

Drawing from the work of state-centered structuralists, rational choice-inspired theorists, as well as studies of the relationship between state and extractive capacity, state capacity is defined as the ability of the state to dominate, i.e. coax compliant behavior from, the individuals of a given territory and operationalized as tax compliance (as measured by the size of the shadow economy relative all legal economic activity). Large-n correlations as well as regression tests show that this operationalization has convergent and discriminant validity, as well as explanatory power. A paired comparison between China and India suggests that this operationalization is able to account for the differences in apparent governance capacity and development performance that other governance measurements cannot.
Quality of Government Institute, Gothenburg University




Working Papers


Gender Attitudes in China 1990-2012: Examining the Age, Period, and Cohort Effects

Under Review, with Zheng SU

This article investigates the changes in gender attitudes from 1990 to 2012 in China. We estimate the age, period, and cohort effects using Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort models, and further assess their overall significance. Expand abstract »

Our findings are threefold: (1) Age effects contributes most substantively to changing support for gender equality; (2) Period effects taken together make a significant impact, however, when examined individually, these estimated coefficients do not validate the rising tide of gender equality brought by economic modernization; (3) There are no significant differences among birth cohorts, therefore casting doubts on the long-term effects of political campaigns in the past decades’ Chinese history.



Not `Fairer Sex' but `Fair Society': How Gender Equality Affects Corruption

Under Review

In this study the longitudinal effect of change in substantive gender equality on perceptions of corruption is tested. Expand abstract »

Previous research has shown that women's political participation has an effect on corruption, leading to the 'fairer sex' hypothesis, but also that the effect disappears when democracy is controlled for. Recent research has shown a link between gender equality and democracy, the latter promoting the former, suggesting a more complex link between gender and corruption. Using a unique dataset of substantive gender equality, covering 143 countries from 1960 to 2010, the longitudinal link between gender equality and perceptions of corruption was tested. Controlling for historical levels of corruption, development, democracy, gender equality, and women’s participation in government, it is shown that a 10\% increase of gender equality among 20-24 year olds will over a fifteen year period reduce perceptions of corruption by around 3\%. These findings are consistent with qualitative historical research.



'Quality of Families' before 'Quality of Government': How Changes in Gender Equality Affect Long-Term Development

Under Review

This paper reexamines the link between gender equality and social and economic development through the use of a 50-year index of substantive gender equality for 143 countries, the Historical Gender Equality Index (HGEI). Expand abstract »

Focused on relative empowerment and autonomy among 20 to 24 year-olds, the HGEI correlates highly with other multidimensional measures of gender equality, such as WomanStats Patrilineal/Fraternal Syndrome and the UNDP’s Gender Inequality Index. By capturing gender equality among a single age group the HGEI can account for change in gender equality, and measure the effect of that change on governance and development over time. The results show that gender equality has a higher effect on economic and social development than single-dimension proxies like women’s education. Furthermore, even controlling for various measures of governance and historical development, an increase in substantive gender equality will over a generation produce significantly higher levels of social and economic development. These results are discussed in relation to the social empowerment of women that occurred across East Asia a generation before the Asian Economic Miracle. Finally, the implications of the results are discussed. While considerable efforts have been made to improve governance in order to promote development, these results suggest that long-term development is promoted by improving equity in the home.